1. Define: Ecology and ecosystem.
2. Classify ecosystems.
3. What are the classifications of biotic components of ecosystems? (AU)
4. What is food chain and food web? (AU)
5. What are tropical levels?
6. What is energy flow?
7. State the first law of thermodynamics.
8. State the second law of thermodynamics.
9. Differentiate between hydrarch and xerarch successions
10. Define the term producers and consumers. (AU)
11. What is meant by genetic diversity? (AU)
12. What is a nutrient or biogeochemical cycle?
13. What is carbon cycle?
14. What do you mean by the term nitrogen fixation?
15. List the reservoirs of phosphorus on earth.
16. What is mycorrhizae?
17. Most fertile and productive soils in the world have developed under grassland. Why?
18. What is humus?
19. Name the factors that affect the aquatic ecosystem.
20. Explain why some of the ecological pyramids are upright while the others are
inverted in different ecosystems.
21. What is homeostasis?
22. How does a biome differ from ecosystem? (AU)
23. List the major biomes of the world.
24. Define: Species diversity and Genetic diversity. (AU)
25. What is ecological succession? State its types.
26. What are the different zones in a lake ecosystem?
27. What do you mean by the following terms: a) Thermocline b) Oligotrophic lakes and c) Meromictic lakes
28. Define: Biodiversity. (AU)
29. Define: Ecosystem diversity
30. What do you understand by the term biopyracy?
31. With suitable examples, briefly explain alpha, beta and gamma richness.
32. Name the methods used for valuation of biodiversity.
33. Distinguish between endangered and endemic species. Give examples.
34. What is Red Data Book?
35. Name some bioreserve centres of Tamil Nadu / India.
36. List the biogeographical zones of India.
37. What are the criteria for acknowledging a hot spot?
38. Why poaching of wild life is happening?
39. List the major threats to biodiversity.
40. Name the few endangered wild life species of India (AU)
Unit II PART B Important 16 Mark Question and Answer CY 1201 ESE
1. Explain ecological pyramids. (4)
2. Explain: (1) Forest ecosystem (2) Ecological succession (4+4) (AU)
3. What are the different types of Eco-system and explain them with an
4. Briefly discuss the structural and functional components of an ecosystem.(8)
5. Compare and contrast an ecosystem with an anthroposystem.
6. Compare and contrast natural ecosystem with agro ecosystem.
7. Explain the functioning of hydrological cycle.
8. Explain the role of biogeochemical cycles in sustaining life on earth.
9. Discuss the environmental factors affecting the performance of an aquatic
10. Explain: The grass land ecosystem. (8) (AU)
11. Write a note on food chain. (4) (AU)
12. Write the short notes on the following: (i) Energy flow in ecosystem (ii) Pond
ecosystem (iii) Threats to bio-diversity (6+5+5) (AU)
13. Explain the flow of energy in the atmosphere and its utilities in an ecosystem.(8)(AU)
14. Write a short note on phosphorus, sulphur and oxygen cycles.
15. Explain the different components of an ecosystem with the help of pond
ecosystem. (8) (AU)
16. Energy flow in an ecosystem obeys Ist and IInd laws of thermodynamics. Justify.(6) (AU)
17. Explain the biodiversity of India. (8) (AU)
18. Discuss the status of India as a mega diverse nation of biodiversity.
19. Is biotechnology a threat to biodiversity? Discuss.
20. “Extinction is part of the evolutionary process. Then why should we bother about extinction of species”. Comment.
21. Describe in-situ and ex-situ conservation of bio-diversity. (8) (AU)
22. What do you understand by hot spots in biodiversity? Name and briefly describe the hot spots of biodiversity that extend in India. (8) (AU)
23. Explain the role of biodiversity at global, national and local levels.(12) (AU)
24. Briefly explain the conservation of bio-diversity. (8) (AU)
25. Enumerate the major causes of degeneration of biodiversity. (8) (AU)
26. Why conservation in parks, sanctuaries and nature reserves is considered
inadequate and the only sensible way is to conserve the entire ecosystem as
habitat? Discuss.(10) (AU)
27. With a neat sketch explain the flow of energy through the various components of the ecosystem (Producers, Consumers and Decomposers) (8)
28. Discuss the concept of ecological pyramids. (8) (AU)
29. Explain the various types of values of biodiversity. (16)
30. List the major endemic species of India. What are measures taken to conserve them?/span>